Even in XXI century fire continues to remain terrible force. The high density of a urban population and construction of skyscrapers only increase danger which carries a fire. Therefore the question of protection against a fire of designs and for today has not lost the urgency.
The modern architectonic design of buildings and constructions provides use more than on 60-80 % of a glassing, therefore it is fairly possible to consider a question of creation of designs proof to a fire a problem of creation of a meeting glassing. Stability a fire of a glassing includes not only special glasses, and and all design: a frame, fastening elements and other.
Stability a fire of materials is established by the tests spent in special laboratory. During tests are studied a material properties – flammabillity, ability to strengthen a flame, speed of combustion, ability to burn or smoke, etc.
By results of tests materials concern to one of categories:
- the extremely inflammable.
Fire resistance of a design, on pr. EN 357, is defined by a following number of terms:
Ability to carry loading
Ability of a constructive part to resist to impact of fire from one or more sides during the certain period without loss of stability of a design.
Ability of a constructive part with independent function to resist to impact of fire only on one side without a flame to the side which is not subject to fire. As a result of passage of a significant amount of a flame or hot gases from fire to the side which is not subject to impact of a flame to not cause ignition of the surface which are not subject to a flame or any materials, being in contact to this surface.
Down of rayings
Ability of a constructive part with independent function to resist to impact of fire on the one hand during time while rayed heat before a glassing does not become below precisely fixed level.
The quantity of the thermal radiation which is let out by a dividing glass design, defines demanded safe distances from passes and inflammable materials.
The quantity of a thermal radiation depends on a type of an applied glass, the area of a gleam of a window, and also from time of opposition to fire. In Finland, for example, definition of safe distance is made on the basis of results of trial by fire at simultaneous measurement of quantity of raying depending on time. Safe it is considered such distance on which the quantity of raying does not exceed 10 kV/m2.
In case of when the area of a design used at construction is more or less, than at testing, on the basis of the sizes received as a result of the test it is possible to define necessary size of safe distance. A Comparison test lead in Switzerland, have shown, that at a correct select of a glass, it is probably essential to lower risk of penetration of a thermal radiation or to reduce safe distance.
Ability of a constructive part to resist to impact of fire only on one side without fire so that to not cause ignition of a surface on which fire or any material which is being contact to this surface, and also ability to create a parting layer to heat, sufficient to protect the people who are being near to a constructive part during the certain period of time did not influence.
Regulation of a smoke
Ability of a constructive part to reduce passage through it of hot or cold gases or a smoke.
Ability of doors and louver to close an aperture in case of occurrence of a smoke by means of the special gear.